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Sacro Occipital Technique

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Major Bertrand DeJarnette, DO, DC

Major Bertrand DeJarnette, DO, DC
Born December 23, 1899
LaMonte, MO
Died May 31, 1992
St. Mary's Hospital, Nebraska City, NB
Nationality Flag usa.gif United States
Education Chiropractic
Alma mater 1924 he graduated from the Nebraska College of Chiropractic
Occupation Developer of Chiropractic Technique (Sacro Occipital Technique)
Years active 1924 to 1990
Home town Nebraska City, NB
Known for Developer of Sacro Occipital Technique
Title Chiropractor, Osteopath
Spouse(s) Todde De Jarnette

History

S.O.T. or Sacro Occipital Technique was discovered and developed by Major Bertrand DeJarnette. Born on December 23, 1899 Major DeJarnette was raised in Havelock, Nebraska. In high school he considered a career in mechanical and design engineering and earned a four-year scholarship as an apprentice in the field of experimental engineering. In 1918 he moved to Detroit, Michigan to pursue a career in the automobile industry. After an explosion in the factory left him severely crippled, he discovered the osteopathy as a possible way to restore his health. He traveled to the Dearborn College of Osteopathy in Elgin, Illinois for treatment. Due to his limited financial resources DeJarnette decided to enroll in the college since there was no charge for students to receive treatments.

After his graduation DeJarnette returned to Lincoln, Nebraska. However still suffering from serious back problems he met a chiropractor who convinced him to receive chiropractic care. So “the Major” similarly chose to attend chiropractic college as an economical manner to received chiropractic care and decided to enroll in the Nebraska College of Chiropractic where he received his degree in 1924.

Due to his inquisitive mind DeJarnette incorporated his engineering background and studied the works of many of the leaders of both the osteopathic and chiropractic professions. He felt that there were several contradictions and inadequacies within the professions as well as in his own practice. He began dividing his time between the actual practice of chiropractic and the researching of its principles. For the next 60+ years, until his death in 1992 Major Bertrand DeJarnette continually researched and perfected his chiropractic techniques and their physiological implications. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] His body of printed materials, including technique manuals, philosophical discourses, and research papers is unparalleled in the profession.[10]

Principles and Theories

His definitive works, the 1984 Sacro Occipital Technique Manual, 1981 Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique, and the 1979-80 Cranial Technique Manual are the culminations of his years of research and patient care. In these manuals he narrowed down patterns of whole body imbalance into three distinct categories, allowing the chiropractor to determine mode of care necessary for a specific patient presentation. This category system recognizes that human structures have specific patterns of imbalance. By generalizing patients into three categories DeJarnette developed methods of determining three identifiable, yet interrelated, systems of body reaction. Through the use of specific indicators, the location and correction of these three generalized body patterns could be begin to be reliably assessed. Utilizing an outcome assessment system of pre and post treatment tests could then be applied to evaluate need for care, whether the care rendered is appropriate, and if the intervention was successful.

DeJarnette believed that: “Distortions are massive muscular efforts which result in specific and localized fixations. These fixations act as a source of nerve stimulus to other muscles until the body reaches an impasse. They result from a primary area of segmental neuron stimuli but by the time you see the patient, so many things have happened that it is difficult to make an effort to locate the basic area of subluxation.” SOT is therefore designed to assist the chiropractor in locating and correcting a primary pattern of body distortion. This is accomplished through evaluation of indicators (pre, during and post treatment), applying basic anatomical/physiological principles, and utilizing novel chiropractic interventions unique to SOT.

The three-category system stemmed from DeJarnette's engineering and anatomical background. His study of anatomy helped him investigate the two aspects of the sacroiliac joint, which has an anterior synovial portion and a posterior hyaline cartilage portion. While the sacroiliac joint is one joint the anterior aspect should have motion and this is where sacral nutation and counternutation takes place. On the other hand the posterior sacroiliac joint is focused on weightbearing stability and support, which is why at the posterior joint surface there are interlocking of the ridges, and grooves (form closure) as well as compressive forces by structures like muscles, ligaments and fascia (force closure). DeJarnette's engineering principles evaluated the weightbearing characteristics of the sacroiliac joint and determined that when the joint could not adequately support body weight then load bearing stress will be moved superiorward to the L5/S1 and L4/5 discs via the iliolumbar ligaments, most commonly.

Category I deals with the primary respiratory motion between the sacrum and occiput. This is described typically as pelvic torsion with altered sacral nutation. When pelvic torsion is sufficient to disrupt the anterior aspect of the sacroiliac joint, the normal sacral nutation can be affected. The spinal and cranial meningeal and CSF systems function to a degree like a closed kinematic chain. Therefore the sacral meningeal attachments and reduced sacral nutation can have an affect cranialward to the spinal column and cranial regions, causing meningeal altered tensions, CSF stagnation, and altered vasomotor function.

Category II involves instability of the sacro-iliac joint causing a dysfunctional relationship between the sacrum and its corresponding ilium. The sacroiliac weight-bearing whole body pattern of imbalance causes proprioceptive compromise due to loss of the body to maintain itself against gravity. This stresses the whole body and can involve the spinal column, extremities, TMJ, and cranial sutural system. When Category II system of stress load accommodation reaches a threshold and can no longer compensate for the increased gravitational load this may lead to Category III.

Category III represents the body’s inability to maintain sufficient weightbearing at the posterior sacroiliac joint and can commonly lead to lower lumbosacral discopathy. DeJarnette described this category relating to nerve root compression or stretch syndrome due to direct involvement of the cartilaginous (discs) joints of the spine. He also determined that related muscles such as the piriformis and psoas need to be considered in both assessment and treatment and that sciatic nerve irritation was a common feature of this category.

To DeJarnette SOT is considered a paradigm for health care. This SOT paradigm guides and helps us focus care directly and orderly to the patient, helping to release vertebral, visceral, extremity, and cranial distortions which affect whole body anatomy and physiology.

The main corrective mechanisms employed in the correction of these positional and functional patterns of imbalance are pelvic blocks and hands-on adjusting techniques. The specificity and flexibility of SOT allows the chiropractor to choose either low force or standard HVLA adjusting techniques based on the needs and condition of the patient. SOT acknowledges the various forms and implications of nervous system dysfunction, including: structural, dural/meningeal, viscersomatic, and tonal asymmetries by addressing each of these specifically in its adjusting protocols and procedures.

Aside from its category analysis and treatment, SOT has various techniques novel to its care and is not an exclusionary chiropractic technique. Rather it offers guidelines and direction to those practicing its various methods through a system of diagnostic indicators and pre and post evaluation tests. These indicators could also be considered outcome assessment tools helping to determine positional or directional preferences and the effectiveness of the care rendered. This expansive mode of care includes methods can be used to:

  • Adjust vertebral segments
  • Affect the musculoskeletal system through wedges or blocks
  • Affect viscerosomatic reflexes and the viscera
  • Adjust the extremities
  • Affect the myofascial system of the body
  • Affect cranial bone dynamics
  • Affect craniospinal meningeal balance
  • Affect treatment of the pregnant woman, neonatal and pediatric patient

Adjusting Vertebral Segments

While DeJarnette presented some specific guides to manual articular adjustments with regards to lumbar, thoracic, and cervical vertebra, the definitive SOT method of correction is not limited to any one specific mode of osseous correction. In SOT there are various systems of diagnosis such as trapezius fibers, occipital fibers, R + C factors, and vasomotor adjustments. In each case, the system of diagnosis leads you to the vertebra and gives you an indication of the vertebral involvement and sometimes the direction of its malposition. The method of correction is up to the doctor and can involve a diversified, Gonstead, activator, or any other possible method to affect that vertebral segment. When the specific vertebral segment is adjusted properly then the indicator will be reduced or no longer be present and success of correction can be accurately determined.

Affecting the Musculoskeletal System through Wedges or Blocks

DeJarnette developed the use of pelvic blocks to affect pelvic and whole body distortions in an extremely non-traumatic manner. He also developed a series of treatments using the blocks or wedges to affect the patient and by utilizing gravity as the slow force of correction. SOT orthopedic block placements can be applied under the rib cage, clavicle, lumbars, thoracics, knees, and in various directional positions. Aside from very specific manner of placement with the SOT category one, two and three distortions, the orthopedic block placement allows for the position of the blocks in any manner, which favorably affects SOT indicators.

Affecting the Viscerosomatic Reflexes and Viscera

SOT has various methods of affecting the viscerosomatic and somatovisceral component that may related to persistent vertebral positional or functional imbalance. The procedures for diagnosing and treating the vertebra, viscera and its neurological reflex arch are called “Bloodless Surgery” or CMRT (Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique). CMRT was originally called bloodless surgery but was updated when DeJarnette changed its name to CMRT in the 1960s. Bloodless surgery offers a multitude of treatment options and allows all types of visceral manipulation to fit into the SOT chiropractic mode of treatment. In complex conditions where the patient does not respond to CMRT procedures, other forms of treatment (including visceral manipulation and nutritional support) are indicated. Therefore, any forms of visceral manipulation can be part of SOT Bloodless Surgery ( CMRT) treatment.

Adjusting the Extremities

DeJarnette developed a specific protocol for treating a whole body distortion pattern when initiated by the extremities. Not just another method of treating a single extra-vertebral joint, SOT extremity technique involves a specific formula of treatment protocol beginning with evaluation of the hip, knee, ankle and foot, then shifting to the scapula, shoulder, elbow and wrist and ends with upper cervicals. While DeJarnette presents several effective methods of treating the extremities, any other extremity technique could also be used. In the context of SOT extremity technique the goal is to determine the condition of the extremity and then make corrections as necessary.

Effect on the Myofascial System of the Body

The myofascia (soft tissue) affects and is affected by the vertebra, ribs, extremities, viscera and cranium. The fascia often reflects a historical record of the patient’s entire life experience. Due to fixed patterns of distortion in the fascia, asymmetrical position or functional motion of the vertebra, ribs, extremities, viscera and cranium can persist regardless of repeated treatment to the osseous or visceral component. Therefore, SOT has various soft tissue treatments such as psoas, iliofemoral, SOTO, cervical, sutural and other techniques that augment SOT osseous manipulation and treatment. All forms of soft tissue manipulation and treatment can fall into the SOT treatment protocol as long as they are appropriate for condition and SOT category receiving treatment at that time.

Affecting Cranial Bone Dynamics

There are various systems of cranial bone manipulation, the majority of which are philosophically based on Dr. William Garner Sutherland osteopathic cranial techniques. DeJarnette studied under Sutherland, so Sutherland's osteopathic cranial techniques create the basis for SOT cranial technique. SOT cranial techniques have indicators that fit into a framework of care which relate to the SOT category diagnosis of the body. Therefore, with SOT, cranial techniques have a specific place and are used to enhance craniospinal meningeal dynamics, cranial suture mobility, and temporomandibular balance as well as a multitude of related conditions. All the various cranial techniques such as osteopathic cranial manipulation and craniosacral therapy can be used during SOT cranial manipulative treatments. SOT cranial technique incorporates any cranial technique that can safely affect the patient’s anatomy or physiology. Since there are several ways that cranial bones can be influenced, there are also a multitude of effective cranial techniques, which can be used in this process. SOT cranial techniques allows for this limitless option while giving specific indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the cranial treatments.

Effect on Craniospinal Meningeal Balance

The craniospinal meningeal system incorporates myoligamentous dural interconnections all the way from the occipital to the sacrum. Strong dural attachments are found in the cranium and sacral regions and these osseous attachments are profoundly affected by SOT category treatment and cranial techniques. Various SOT procedures affect meningeal tension and the vascular system in the spinal (vasomotor) and cranium (venous sinuses). Any technique that would reduce “twisting,” “torque,” or balance tension in the craniospinal meningeal system could be a part of the SOT method of care. The SOT methods of diagnosis help the doctor determine these meningeal imbalances as well as determine the effectiveness of care and need for follow up.

Effect in Treatment during Pregnancy; the Neonatal and Pediatric Patient

Due to the non-traumatic nature of treatment offered by the pelvic blocks, SOT for the pregnant woman allows treatment of sacroiliac sprains, common in the last trimester, with little if any contraindications. There are no abrupt movements, twisting, nor strong forces generated to the pelvis or lumbar regions. SOT pediatric care is a complete method of care spanning neonatal through the early teens. Obviously, the treatment varies during the age of the child but incorporated are a myriad of SOT and SOT cranial techniques modified for use in a very gentle yet effective manner. All cranial techniques can be part of the SOT protocol and these can relate to conditions such as, ADHD, otitis media, craniosynostosis, birth trauma, and many others.

Technique

All 50 states within the United States accept SOT for re-licensing credit of chiropractors nationally. All 50 states, within the United States, allow SOT as part of the scope of practice of chiropractors in their state. Most chiropractic colleges nationwide have had SOT as part of either their undergraduate or postgraduate programs.

The following three specific issues also point to SOT being considered as one standard form of chiropractic treatment within the field of chiropractic.

A 2005 Job Analysis of Chiropractic published by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners and its relationship to SOT.

The Mercy Guidelines evaluation of SOT’s major form of treatment the pelvic blocks.

Various articles published in peer review literature that discuss chiropractic “named” techniques which all include SOT as one of the major chiropractic techniques.

Job Analysis of Chiropractic

The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) published a Job Analysis of Chiropractic. The Job Analysis was first published in 1993; 1994, 2000, and the NBCE released a companion volume that included a state-by-state statistical report on chiropractic practice. The “Job Analysis 2005”, is considered the largest and most comprehensive as compared to all prior volumes. [11]

The project director, author and editor of all three volumes was Mark Christensen, PhD, the director of testing for the NBCE. To gather the necessary information for Job Analysis 2005, 2,100 U.S. doctors of chiropractic who completed the final “Survey of Chiropractic Analysis”. This selection process was designed to provide reliable data at the state and national level. [11]

With regard to the section of the study entitled “the most utilized chiropractic adjustive techniques/ procedures adjustive” SOT fared as follows:

  • “% of DC's Utilizing SOT in 1991: 41.3%
  • % of DC's Utilizing SOT in 1998: 49.0%
  • % of DC's Utilizing SOT in 2005: 49.6%” [11]

The Mercy Guidelines

The "Guidelines for Chiropractic Quality Assurance and Practice Parameters," [12] also know as the Mercy Guidelines, was for most of the 1990s considered the accepted guidelines for chiropractic healthcare. While the majority of the SOT related literature published in the peer review literature was published following the review of the authors, their review still came to specific determinations regarding SOT's major treatment modality, the pelvic blocks. Using Kaminsky's [13] method of analysis for chiropractic methods and techniques the Mercy review committee determined the following regarding SOT "Pelvic Blocks":

  • Pelvic Blocks: These paired wedges are used primarily for positioning the lumbosacral and sacroiliac joints to produce a sustained stretch. This procedure is in fairly common use, and there is reasonable rationale and expert opinion on its utility in certain situations. [12]
  • Rating: Promising for the care of patients with neuromusculoskeletal problems. [12]
  • Evidence: Class III - Evidence provided by expert legal opinion, descriptive studies or case reports. [12]
  • Consensus Level: 1 - Established: Accepted as appropriate by the practicing chiropractic community for the given indication in the specified patient population. [12]

There has been a great deal of literature published following the publication of the Mercy Guidelines as well as other SOT published literature that was not available at the time of review. Therefore while the consensus level could not possibly be any higher, the evidence level certainly would be.

Chiropractic Named Techniques

Chiropractic researchers have attempted to evaluate and discuss various “named” chiropractic techniques. In all efforts to evaluate named techniques, SOT is always one method that is listed, and commonly considered a major form of care in chiropractic. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] While the majority of these studies have not had full access to the SOT published literature, SOTO-USA has attempted to remedy that situation recently. The most current text by Gleberzon and Cooperstein on “Named” Chiropractic Techniques [18] treats SOT quite favorably, yet even this text was written without access to all published studies on SOT related treatment.

One study performed by a review of the Applied Chiropractic Department, at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, completed in 1998, involving faculty, clinicians and students, “revealed that 87% of students are in favor of more exposure to named techniques.”[15] It was determined that 53% of the students had interest in learning Sacro Occipital Technique [15], which is similar to the NBCE study. [11]

Training

SOT is offered at many of the chiropractic colleges in their standard technique package, as an elective/selective and in a postgraduate format. SOTO-USA has a complete certification program that is offered both through individual regional seminars as well as through the post-graduate departments of New York Chiropractic College (NYCC), Southern California University of Health Sciences (SCUHS), and Northwestern Health Sciences University .

SOTO-USA's regional seminar program offers individual SOT courses taught by our certified instructors for those who want to learn the basics of SOT as well as those seeking certification. These courses are offered at varying times throughout the country. You can check out the Events and Seminar page on their website at www.soto-usa.org for course listings. SOTO-USA's pediatric programs are offered in conjunction with the ICPA and the Level I spinal and cranial courses are offered internationally through the ICPA, see course listings at www.icpa4kids.com. The final pediatric certification course is offered by SOTO-USA only.

There are three certification levels: certified SOT practitioner (CSP) which requires 44 hours of accredited course work, certified SOT cranial practitioner (CSCP) which requires a (CSP) plus an additional 40 hours of accredited cranial course work, and a certified SOT pediatric practitioner which can be taken separately and requires 32 accredited hours.

Our basic SOT spinal adjusting program is a 24-hour program that is taught in two weekends and includes the anatomy, physiology and philosophy of SOT as well as all evaluation and adjusting procedures for the spine and pelvis. Classes to treat specific extremity distortion patterns and viscerosomatic/somatovisceral reflex imbalance ( Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique – CMRT) are part of the CSP certification. Cranial courses can be taken individually dependent on the practitioners needs and each covers a specific area of cranial corrective procedures. Only licensed DC’s or students are allowed to take our SOT courses.

Goals

SOTO-USA is a (501 c3) nonprofit organization formed to promote the awareness, understanding and utilization of the Sacro Occipital Technique method of chiropractic as founded and developed by Dr. Major Bertrand DeJarnette. Their main goals are to educate and instruct chiropractors in the philosophy, art and science of Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT) and to promote evidence informed, clinically significant advances in chiropractic and SOT technique.

In a continuing effort to offer the latest information in addition to the Clinical Symposium, SOTO-USA offers special opportunities for hands-on teaching of Sacro Occipital Technique to licensed chiropractors and chiropractic students. SOTO-USA has annual research conferences where doctors in clinical practice can learn how to write and present their findings in a profession research format both in conference proceedings at with platform presentations in front of peers for review and questions. SOTO-USA has regularly contributed to chiropractic and interdisciplinary research conferences to support both chiropractic and further investigate SOT and its related methodologies.

SOTO - USA looks to not only lead the chiropractic profession into the 21st century but to champion the concept that through understanding and cooperation between all disciplines, excellence in patient care can be achieved. For example, SOTO-USA is the only chiropractic-based organization in the American Alliance of TMD Organization [www.TMDAlliance.org] an alliance of primarily dental organizations (17,000 members) treating patients with TMJ disorders. To SOTO-USA future of chiropractic and healthcare will take place with interdisciplinary and co-management of patients in cooperation with our allied healthcare partners.

Evidence

For Major Bertrand DeJarnette, DO, DC, research was an essential part of being a chiropractor and essential to the future of the chiropractic profession. As early as July 1935 Major Bertrand DeJarnette was a featured speaker at the 40th Anniversary Convention 1895-1935 of the National Chiropractic Association presenting clinical research.

Always research was his passion and in an interview in 1982 DeJarnette reiterated, “as far back as chiropractic college, I saw the need for a more scientific basis for chiropractic theory. My own personal physical problems had not been solved by medicine, osteopathy, or chiropractic; so I began experimenting on myself. I’m still at it, and I can see no end of the need for continuous research in chiropractic [7].”

"Teaching and writing is like laying your soul bare before the board of the judgment society that determines your fate after you are gone. We welcome research. In reality, those doing research on our research are reaping the benefits of our research.We most often suffer the tears of failure. A technique must live by criticism and when such is well meant and constructive, it is useful. Often in the past it was totally destructive by intent. All mankind resists improvement [19]."

“Research is a study of what you have, and what you need to make it better, and how to make it better is the final research step. S.O.T. never wants to be just good. It always wants to be better and best and greatest and most dependable [20].”

SOT Related Publications

The following are SOT related publications in peer review journals, chiropractic or interdisciplinary research conferences, non-peer review journals, and proceedings from the Annual SOT Research Conferences. These articles either directly relate to SOT patient management or support the use of cranial, TMJ, and pelvic block related assessments and treatments.

SOTO-USA has gathered all the full text SOT or cranial peer reviewed articles into two compendiums one for literature from 1984-2000 and another from 2000-2005. They are currently working on the compendium from 2005-2010 and expect to have it published by 2012. Along with their annual SOT Research Conference Proceedings the compendiums are also sent complementary to all chiropractic colleges nationally in the United States.

Peer Reviewed Journals

Link to List of Journals

Research Conference Proceedings

Link to List of Papers

Non Peer-Reviewed Journals

Link to List of Journals

SOT Research Conferences

5th Annual SOT Research Conference - 2013 (Papers)

Link to papers

4th Annual SOT Research Conference - 2012 (Papers)

Link to papers

3rd Annual SOT Research Conference - 2011 (Papers)

Link to papers

2nd Annual SOT Research Conference - 2010 (Papers)

Link to papers

1st Annual SOT Research Conference - 2009 (Papers)

Link to papers

References

  1. Rosen, MG; Blum CL (Jul/Aug 2003). "Sacro Occipital Technique: Technique and Analysis". Today's Chiropractic 32 (4): 22,24-6. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=13935. 
  2. Heese, N (Sep/Oct 2000). "Chiropractic Innovator: Dr. Major B. DeJarnette". Today’s Chiropractic 29 (5): 60-6. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=8138. 
  3. Unger, JF; Blum CL (Sep 1995). "The Legacy of a Chiropractor, Inventor and Researcher: Dr. Major Bertrand DeJarnette". Conference Proceedings of the Chiropractic Centennial Foundation: Davenport, Iowa: 35-6. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=8423. 
  4. Koffman, D (Jul 1992). "Chiropractic Bids Adieu to “Major” Bertrand DeJarnette". Dynamic Chiropractic 10 (13). http://www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=43303. 
  5. Heese, N (Jun 1991). "Major Bertrand DeJarnette: Six Decades of Sacro Occipital Research, 1924-1984". Chiropractic History 11 (1): 13-5. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=8344. 
  6. DeJarnette, MB (May/Jun 1986). "Sacro Occipital Technique – 1986". Today's Chiropractic 15 (3): 97-98. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=15642. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 DeJarnette, MB (Jul/Aug 1982). "Cornerstone". Todays Chiropractic 82: 22,23,28,34. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=8331. 
  8. DeJarnette, MB (Mar 1978). "Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT) – 1978". J Can Chiropr Assoc 22 (1): 8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2484001/?page=1. 
  9. DeJarnette, MB (Nov 1959). "Shall Chiropractic Survive?". Journal of the National Chiropractic Association 29 (11): 75. http://www.sotousa.com/wp/?p=8109. 
  10. ""The SOT Related Publications of Dr. Major Bertrand DeJarnette"". 1928-84. http://www.soto-usa.com/wp/?page_id=13951. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Christensen, M; Kollasch, MW (2005), "10", 2005 Job Analysis of Chiropractic, Greely, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, p. 135. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Haldeman, S; Chapman-Smith, D; Peterson, DM (1993), Guidelines for Chiropractic Quality Assurance and Practice Parameters: Proceedings of the Mercy Center Consensus Conference, Gaithersburg, Maryland: Aspen Publisher, Inc, pp. 106-8. 
  13. Kaminski, M; Boal R, Gillette RG, Peterson DH, Villnave TJ (Apr 1987). "A model for the evaluation of chiropractic methods". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 110 (2): 61-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3585198. 
  14. Gleberzon, BJ (2002). "Chiropractic Name Techniques in Canada: A Continued Look at Demographic Trends and Their Impact on Issues of Jurisprudence". J Can Chiropr Assoc 46 (4): 241-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2505021/. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Gleberzon, BJ (2000). "Incorporating Named Techniques into a Chiropractic College Curriculum: A Compilation of Investigative Reports". J Chiropr Educ 14 (1): 33-4. http://www.journalchiroed.com/2000/JCESpring2000PosterAbstracts.PDF. 
  16. Bergmann, TF (May 1993). "Various Forms of Chiropractic Technique". Chiropr Tech 5 (2): 53-5. http://www.chiroindex.org/?search_page=articles&action=&articleId=6096. 
  17. Peterson, DH; Bergmann, TE (2002), Chiropractic Technique: Principles and Procedures (2nd Edition ed.), St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc, pp. 460-2, 497 499. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Cooperstein, R; Gleberzon, BJ (Apr 2004), Technique Systems in Chiropractic, New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 123-36, 209-20, 300-1. 
  19. DeJarnette, MB (Apr 1985). Sacro Occipital Technic Bulletin 1925 to 1985. Nebraska City, NB: Privately Published. p. 3. http://www.soto-usa.com/wp/images/pdf/bulletin/SOTBulletin1985Apr.pdf. 
  20. DeJarnette, MB (Mar 1978). Sacro Occipital Technic Bulletin. Nebraska City, NB: Privately Published. pp. 2-3. 

External Links

  1. Other research compilations and an assortment of SOT books can be found here:SOTO.Org Website
  2. SOTO-USA - SOT Research Conferences
  3. 5th Annual SOT Research Conference
  4. 4th Annual SOT Research Conference
  5. 3rd Annual SOT Research Conference
  6. 2nd Annual SOT Research Conference
  7. 1st Annual SOT Research Conference